By applying our method to Stonehenge we have found the real age and the real use of this mysterious megalithic site. Stonehenge is not just a few thousand years old, no, it is more than 250,000 years old, built by early Homo sapiens that already wandered around the planet for many millenniums. Homo sapiens appeared to have been very active during their presence, and was not like the academia still believe, a retarded ape man. On the contrary, they were highly skilled and advanced human beings building all sorts of instruments to study their environment.
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Was Stonehenge a Calender?
Most people know of Stonehenge – that circular arrangement of rocks in England, a mysterious structure without a seemingly clear purpose.
Every year, people visit Stonehenge to witness the sunrise at Summer or Winter solstice. Why are they doing this? Because they probably believe that this was the main purpose of the monument – to verify and celebrate the longest and shortest days of the year.
When the Sun shines through a circular array of many stones, it will always produce many effects that can easily be mistaken for legitimate assessments. People are easily misled by their own preconceived ideas and thus they are unable to see alternatives – even the Truth.
Another fact is that, when one knows when the longest day occurs, one will look for patterns that will gratify one’s own beliefs. Most people are influenced by such wishful thinking.
Many Things Are Said About Stonehenge
We are taught that Stonehenge’s building process took several hundred years. It is also said that it was constructed during the so-called “Neolithic” period – some 5,000 years ago. Several stones are so tall that everyone wonders how they were transported from far away because it is believed that the builders had no wheels.
It is also said that there were no labor forces large enough for such an undertaking because the limited population had to hunt and scavenge almost continuously and to prepare food for their survival. Why would they build something as outrageous as Stonehenge when insufficient human resources were available?
It is also said that the bluestones, which are located inside the horseshoe shape, have been quarried in Wales, some 160 miles (240 km) away. The purpose of the monument must have been something magnificent and important that the ancients have expended so much effort into building it. But what was its purpose?
The Purpose of Stonehenge?
That question has finally been answered (by us) with a completely new mathematical theory.
Some official theories abound that could even be partially correct. For instance, it is believed that Stonehenge could be:
- a calendar
- a sacred cemetery
- a sound illusion
Stonehenge does indeed have exceptional sound qualities. Sounds produced in the center, or at the altar, result in such amazing and complicated interference patterns that at some points the sound dies out and at some points, the sound is amplified.
The primary purpose of Stonehenge, however, seems to be that of an ancient calendar. In several logical steps we will explain and demonstrate how we think it was used.
Ice Ages Were Earth Crust Displacements
First, we will explain more about Earth’s true history: Our research shows that, over the last 340,000 years, the Earth experienced four latitudinal crustal deformations. Science insists to call these events “glaciation cycles”. Our mathematical Holistic Orientation Based Dating Method proves with 100% certainty that these four crustal displacements have indeed taken place.
Our analytical method uses the orientation of ancient structures around the world to prove how ancient structures and crustal displacements are intimately associated. For most people, our theory is not difficult to grasp. It reveals without a doubt the indisputable proof of a logical connection between ancient history and recurring physical Earth events.
Step 1 – The Symmetry Axis of Stonehenge
Stonehenge is only symmetrical along one specific axis (Fig 3) and symmetry is of importance when you want to use any kind of building as an instrument.
Reason: If symmetry is not introduced into such an instrument, there would be an extra variable in the readings of the measurements. Extra variables make the measurements and their interpretations suddenly much more difficult, if not impossible, to solve. Ask any graduate engineer or scientist – everyone will agree.
If Stonehenge were a calendar of some kind, then it would have to be symmetrical with respect to the Cardinals, and that is either North-South or East-West. The direction in which it is symmetrical would decide its ultimate use.
Our problem: It is not possible to match the symmetry axis to our current geographic pole or to one of the current cardinals East-West or North-South.
What happens when we examine the symmetry axis to one of the other ancient geographic poles?
Step 2 – Everything Should be Made as Simple as Possible
The symmetry axis of Stonehenge is rotated 50° counter-clockwise with respect to our current geographical North pole.
The angle of the Summer solstice of the specific latitude where Stonehenge is situated is 39.4°. That is the angle between true East and where the Sun rises at the Summer or Winter solstice. Because the symmetry axis of Stonehenge is almost aligned towards the Summer solstice, the puzzle was apparently solved a long time ago. But is that true?
Because it is not known exactly how Stonehenge was used, it shows how mistakes might develop in interpreting the monument’s alignment.
The only missing piece of the puzzle seemed to be the discrepancy between 39.4 and 40 degrees because this would result in errors too big to accurately measure the solstices. To determine a solstice with a large stone arrangement, accurately to the day, requires an incredibly precise alignment. A deviation of only 0.6° results in an uncertainty of 12 days. That is because the closer one gets to a solstice, the slower the Sun shifts. The Sun shifts fastest at the Equinox. The math behind this is quite complicated and therefore we will refrain from delving into this matter any further.
In the case of Stonehenge, to accurately measure the summer solstice within ±3 days requires an alignments accuracy of only 0.1° of the monument towards the solstice event. To measure it accurately within a tolerance of one day requires an accuracy of less than 0.05°.
Empiricism Versus Mathematics
Some archaeologists believe that they have found the reason for this discrepancy between 39.4 and 40. If Stonehenge was built some 5,000 years ago, the tilt angle of the Earth was at a slightly higher angle (24.0°) than it is today, which resulted in another solstice angle, by which the ‘experts’ believed to have closed the gap.
But is that so? The facts are pointing to the contrary. The error remains but now it is in the other direction. Are archaeologist bad mathematicians? It appears so.
A tilt angle of 24.0° resulted in a Summer solstice angle of 40.5°. That would make the instrument, at the time it was built, as inaccurate as it is today. It would still be 0.5° off but in the other direction. Quite a large deviation indeed, resulting in an uncertainty of 10 days in determining the solstice.
If Stonehenge were to be a few thousand years older than is estimated today, the error would grow so large that the solstice angle of the monument would be more than 1° off. One degree off would mean an error of about three weeks.
Not a single fact exists supporting the idea that the original symmetry axis of Stonehenge was indeed oriented toward the Summer solstice. That Stonehenge’s orientation angle comes close to the Summer solstice seems to be most likely a play of Mother Nature.
Step 3 – The Only Matching Time Frame for Stonehenge
Therefore, we can easily hypothesize that the alleged alignment of the symmetry axis towards the Summer solstice has been, and still is, one of the biggest misunderstandings of the exploration of this monument. We state that Stonehenge’s orientation correlates with one of the former proven geographic poles, namely pole IV. There is only about a 20% of a chance for this occurrence to be coincidental. We can posit the claim, with 80% certainty, that Stonehenge’s symmetry axis was aligned to the Equinox, true East-West.
But that likelihood is still outranked by its current, almost matching orientation to the Summer solstice. Since that orientation does not seem to make the monument work, we have investigated another option, namely that Stonehenge had at one time been oriented to the ancient pole IV – and that situates this monument between an astoundingly ancient timeframe of between 240,000 and 270,000 years BP.
What Was the Purpose of Stonehenge?
The purpose of Stonehenge has always been a mystery. The strange orientation of the monument with respect to the cardinals makes no sense because the monument contains so many redundant stones. The scale of this megalithic structure leaves not a single doubt of its importance. But for what?
Was Stonehenge a calendar? Or a temple? But how did it work? Is the contemporary alignment of the symmetry axis towards the Summer solstice a play of Mother Nature?
We have already explained some aspects of Stonehenge’s alleged solstice orientation. We also affirmed that the monument was oriented to another geographical pole, namely pole IV. This pole is between 240,000 and 270,000 years old.
The symmetry axis of Stonehenge was exactly perpendicular to the position of pole IV. The chances for this to happen accidentally is 20%. So, here is obviously a possibility that our claim is entirely wrong.
But what happens when we continue to build on this outrageous claim? Will it reveal the Stonehenge edifice as a calendar?
Step 4 – Was Stonehenge a Very Ancient Calendar?
If it is true that Stonehenge was built at the time when the geographic North pole was at the location marked as pole IV, it would mean that it was situated at another latitude: 63.3°N instead of 51.2°N today.
That would change three major items:
- the symmetry axis of Stonehenge was oriented towards another cardinal system and therefore to a very ancient true East-West cardinal. Stonehenge’s horseshoe would be oriented like a sun catcher to the Equinox, and thereby be ultimately symmetrical to both Summer and Winter solstices
- the solstice angles were completely different because the latitude was different
- the tilt angle of the Earth varied between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago, which also influenced the solstices.
Pole IV, noted with the red dot in Fig. 8, was stable at the position 64.0°N, 47.1°W between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago.
It is possible that this article is somewhat difficult to understand for many of our readers, but we must thoroughly explain this if we want to fully expose the truth of our ancient history. That is a very difficult quest, and ultimately it is a mathematical quest.
Concerning the question of whether or not Stonehenge was an ancient calendar: The answer is Yes.
It was a very sophisticated calendar. But we must overcome some serious considerations first.
Step 5 – Focus from Another Perspective
The odds for Stonehenge to correlate purposely with one of the former geographical poles is 80%. That may not be spectacularly high, but it is a good enough basis to continue investigating.
But, we admit, the almost-matching orientation of Stonehenge towards the current Summer solstice is much higher, about 99.3%.
That is why it is understandable if we are challenged when we affirm the accuracy of our idea that Stonehenge was originally oriented to another cardinal system and is therefore amazingly older than believed by Academia.
This, however, does not change the fact that up to now no one has been able to explain how the monument worked and that Stonehenge has many redundant stones for only one solstice, the Summer solstice.
What if we argue that this almost-matching orientation towards the Summer solstice might only be a play of Mother Nature – a coincidence?
Because Stonehenge obviously does not work. Have you ever seen one idea about Stonehenge that really made sense? So far, nobody has adequately explained why the ancient builders made such a herculean effort for so many “obsolete” stones, done at a time when a reliable workforce was a very valuable asset. Would that not contradict all logic?
Below (Fig. 10) you find the formula to calculate the solstice angles for any location on Earth during any tilt angle of the spin axis. You will see how important it is to get a grasp of this kind of mathematics, which is mainly the domain of experts.
How to Calculate Solstices
Step 6 – Compiling the Initial Data
Since we can only stipulate, at this stage, that Stonehenge’s orientation corresponded to pole IV, we can compile the corresponding values into the table shown below. Because pole IV was stable between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago, the tilt of the Earth was also much different, and so were the resulting solstice angles.
|Location pole IV||64.0N, 47.1W|
|Distance Stonehenge to Pole IV||2,974 km|
|Latitude Stonehenge (pole IV)||63.3N|
|Tilt Earth (220-270ky ago)||22.6°-24.4°|
How the Tilt Angle Varied
Step 7 – Calculating the Limits of the Solstices
By using the solstice formula (Fig. 10), we can calculate the values of the solstices for both extreme tilt angles.
|Solstice angle tilt 22.6°||58.8°|
|Solstice angle tilt 24.4°||66.8°|
Step 8 – Examining Stonehenge’s Configuration for Pole IV
The Only Angle That Fits
Step 9 – Finding the Most Probable Age for Stonehenge
As you can see in the graph above, there are two moments during a stable pole IV (240ky-270ky ago). One is at -240 and the other at -265. It is highly unlikely that Stonehenge would be built at the end of a 30,000-year period. It is, therefore, more likely that it was built 265,000 years ago.
The crust, after having been on a rough ride for 65,000 years, stabilized at the position of Pole IV, 270,000 years ago. It took another 5,000 years before the monument was built during this period of relative tranquility.
How Solstice Determination Through the Slits Worked
Step 10 – The Probabilities of our Claim
There is a 20% chance for Stonehenge’s symmetry axis to correlate unintendedly with one of the poles I to V, hence, there is an 80% chance it was done on purpose. But there is only one pole with which Stonehenge clearly correlates, and that is pole IV. That is why we have researched the entire constellation based on pole IV. What we found was beyond anything we expected.
It is certainly legitimate to say that the reorientation of the symmetry axis to another very ancient pole leads to a more credible explanation as to how the monument once worked. The whole daring idea that Stonehenge could successfully be re-oriented to the ancient Pole IV, and is therefore very old, suddenly does not sound so outrageous anymore. But how large are the odds that the claim might be true?
How the Solstice Sun Peeped Between Two Slits
Probability That This is True
If we look at the horseshoe-shaped inner arrangement, we can easily see that there is only one way to get this part of the monument to work for these astronomical values:
- Summer solstice
- Winter solstice and
The odds for this to have happened haphazardly are insignificant. The margins for the Sun to shine through the slits of A-A’ and B-B’ are incredibly narrow – only 0.05° . This 0.05° is the necessary margin to measure a solstice, down to one day.
It is absolutely amazing to realize that this narrow A-A’ and B-B’ fit is exclusively related to Pole IV. The chances that this is mere coincidence are practically nonexistent: 1 to 6.7 million or 0.0000149%. The probability that it was done deliberately: 99.999985% .
We can now confirm that Stonehenge is indeed roughly 265,000 years old with a probability of 99.999985%. This surpasses all other previous estimations and explanations regarding the true age and purpose of this structure.
It is challenging even for us to realize that Stonehenge could be so amazingly old. One must overcome and transcend one’s own persistent conditioning and beliefs. Most people would undoubtedly prefer to remain in denial. It is also crucial to understand that Stonehenge does NOT work any longer as was once intended. It remains merely as a tourist attraction.
New Answers Also Generate New Questions
Monuments such as Stonehenge appear to last much longer than we commonly suppose. The sheer unbelievable age also raises additional questions such as: Why is it not buried in thick layers of soil? Finding new answers apparently also generates new questions.
In mathematics concerning Stonehenge, the angle of 60° (and 30°) has special properties. For example, the cosine of 60° equals ½ and the sinus of 60° equals ½√3. This solstice angle of 60° occurred only once in the history of this specific location.
The formation of the Greenland ice sheet started when the geographic pole was at position IV, at the Southern tip of Greenland. It must have been quite cold when Stonehenge was built, perhaps comparable to the middle of Scandinavia – mild Summers, cold Winters – but then the ice sheet was not very thick.
Full Explanation of the Purpose of Stonehenge
© 2017-2019 by Mario Buildreps et al.
Proofreading and editing: J.B.
: There could be doubt regarding the angle of 0.05°, and that is fully understandable, considering it is indeed amazingly narrow. When looked at from the middle of A’ towards A, or from B’ towards B, or vice versa (sunset), one can distinguish subtleties within a range of 0.05°.
: Our probability calculations are based on: (1) matching symmetry with Pole IV; (2) matching arrangement of 5 trilithons + 1 heel stone with solstice angles and the equinox; (3) the matching distance from Stonehenge to the center of Pole IV within a range of 38.8 degrees; (4) the narrow slit of the 4 solstice trilithons to create a “one day” accurately within the configuration (1) to (3); (5) the only configuration to get the horseshoe to work for both solstices and the equinox. The odds are 100% that something like this was done by design and is therefore true.