Lost Civilizations – Is Caral the Cradle of Humanity?

Why Caral is One of the Oldest Ruins

Caral is much more ancient than anyone held possible. The mainstream views estimate the site to be at least 5,000 years old. That’s even older than the official estimates of the pyramids of Giza.

The area of Caral contains a large amount of pyramid like structures which we’ve processed into an orientation pattern. Officially is the age of Caral even of the charts of the Holistic Orientation Based Dating Method which goes back to about 500,000 years. Caral is even older than that. Much older.

Note that we’re not talking about the top structures of the pyramids of Caral. We’re solely speaking of the foundations of the original buildings. It appears that many of the structures were built over one another during the eons, but because the original orientation of the buildings remained in most cases the same, we were able to reconstruct the age of the oldest structures on Caral. And they are way older, more than one hundred times, than archaeologists estimate them to be.

We can say with a probability of more than 99.999% that the oldest ruins on Caral are older than 350,000 years! The calculations are done purely mathematical without a single dig into the ground or even without one step on one of the pyramids. That appears not to be necessary to understand their true antiquity.

Enjoy watching!

© 2017 by Mario Buildreps



Lost Civilizations – The Mystery of Nuraghes on Sardinia

Nuraghes belong to one of the most mysterious ancient monuments in the world. An unknown civilization, called the Nuragic civilization, built over 7,000 stone structures on Sardinia, an island of the size of Sicily. The Nuragic civilization appears to be way older than previously believed, way beyond our imagination. 

Fig. 1: The Nuraghe Santa Sabina is an example of a simple Nuraghe. There are thousands of these on Sardinia that are approximately similar to this one. Most of them are in a worse condition.

What is a Nuraghe?

A Nuraghe is a tower-shaped, prehistoric stone structure only to be found in Sardinia. It is said they date from the second millennium B.C. to the Roman conquest.

Most people believe that Nuraghes are astronomical aligned structures. But to say which kind of astronomical purpose they exactly served is completely unknown. Researches[1] to the orientation of the openings show they peak at an azimuth of 148°. There’s no match to make with one of the cardinals, the Equinox, nor with one of the Solstices. The current Summer and Winter solstices in Sardinia occur respectively around 58.5° and 121.5.

Nuraghes show also peaks in declination between 40° and 44° which has led to speculations they might have been oriented to Alpha Centauri. Why an alleged primitive culture would point their towers to one of the many stars light years away remains of course unanswered.

Most researchers split Nuraghes into two parts: simple Nuraghes and complex Nuraghes. This article will deal only with the simple Nuraghes.

Fig. 2: Typical floor plan of a simple Nuraghe.

What Was the Function of a Nuraghe?

Wikipedia about Nuraghes: “There is no consensus on the function of the nuraghes: they could have been rulers’ residences, military strongholds, meeting halls, religious temples, ordinary dwellings or a combination of the former. Some of the nuraghes are, however, located in strategic places – such as hills– from which important passages could be easily controlled. They might have been something between a “status symbol” and a “passive defence” building, meant to be a deterrent for possible enemies.

This explanation does not deviate from the typical average explanations as to how ancient cultures lived, built, and practiced their religious and scientific lives. This approach is of course unable to solve questions like:

  • why so many Nuraghes?
  • why are they all so similar but weirdly oriented?
  • what was their purpose?

By applying the new mathematical theory, The Holistic Orientation Based Dating Method, is the function of the Nuraghes explained as well as the periods they were built. Our conventional history appears to be built on a swamp of misinterpretations, fixed ideas, lies, and most of all the common practice of unscience by the academia.

How the Shifting Crust Relates to Ancient Structures and Ice Ages

Fig. 3: More than 500 ancient structures, like pyramids and temples are used to prove how and when the Earth’s crust shifted on the rhythm of the Milankovitch cycles, or better, Earth’s eccentric orbit around the Sun. While Nuraghes are no part of the dataset they also appear to follow the 47.1 W reference line with a surgical precision. The odds for the Nuraghes to be also coincidentally part of that same track is 1 to 893,000 | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Nuraghes Are No Exception

It is generally believed there’s no relation between the Nuraghes and the countless other ancient structures around the world. But that appears to be one of the biggest mistakes science has made over the last centuries. Nuraghes appear to belong to the same global civilization which spanned the entire planet, one of the countless Lost Civilizations.

The whole idea, that ancient cultures are stretching out over hundreds of thousands of years, is awesomely hard to grasp for most people. And that has a reason. We are all relentlessly conditioned at school with the same ideas of ancient history, which is ultimately completely false.

Fig. 4: Many of the simple Nuraghes are oriented between 140 and 160 degrees.

Most archaeologists won’t even ponder a split second on the idea that ancient structures might be hundreds of thousands of years old. Even when remnants of Homo sapiens are found in Marocco that appear to be over 300,000 years old – the penny still doesn’t drop.

That’s because the ruling paradigm is much too tough to break through. Only mathematics has the power to smash tough paradigms to smithereens. It’s then up to yourself to transform your believe system to a higher level.

Ask yourself questions like: why would a 300,000 year old Homo sapiens be less smart than we are today? Because they didn’t went to the same schools as we did? There are insufficient reasons to assume they would be either smarter or dumber than we are. Because if they would be one of both they would be, by definition, another species.

Would a Blackbird that lived 300,000 years ago built the same nests that it builds today? Or did they built no nests or simpler nests? These are important questions for you to become aware of.

The Results of the Measurements

Fig. 5 : The orientation of the openings of simple Nuraghes peaks at 148°. The current solstices of Sardinia are far away from the spikes in the data. | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Why the Crust Moved

Geologists say there is no evidence for crustal displacements. But they haven’t looked well enough to their own data. Paleomagnetic records appear to contain tons of data that are pointing not only to magnetic movements but also to movements of the crust. And because one measurement thus contains two variables it cannot be solved without introducing a second completely different measurement.

During the crustal movements the paleomagnetic data show an increased hysteresis and also an increasing uncertainty of the alleged magnetic pole position. In other words, the paleomagnetic records show a larger spread during periods of crustal unrest, which is of course logical during periods of crustal displacement. Geologists have never found a credible explanation for the varying hysteresis, other than just unexplained “noise” without further examination. It never even dawned on them there is second variable in the game: crustal movements caused by very heavy earthquakes which on their turn are caused by a high eccentric orbit of Earth around the Sun.

Because the Earth, Earth’s inner and also the outer crust are rotating bodies, they will react perpendicularly to the direction of rotation when a force is acted upon them. Exactly like a spinning top does. Because the crust has the highest velocity and is at the same time the lightest part of the Earth, it will react the most fiercely of all the components. That’s why the crust crawled in the latitudinal (vertical) direction.

How the Latitude of Sardinia Changed Over Time

Fig. 6: This animation shows how the latitudes of Sardinia have changed during the “glaciation cycles”. Glaciation cycles were in fact crustal displacements. The Nuragic civilization appeared to have a firm tradition to orient the openings of the stone structures to the South and continued to do this consistently over a period of about 200,000 years, even during the periods of crustal unrest. | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Finding the First Clues on Nuraghes

The theory or method says there were four former geographic poles, called Pole II to Pole V (fig. 3). Our current geographic pole is Pole I. This is not just a hint or an idea, no, it is mathematically proven. The geographic pole is the spin axis of the Earth. Many people appear to mix this with the magnetic pole.

If the Nuraghes were built during one of these periods, the orientation of the Nuraghes could well relate to one or more of these poles. Our first clues are here to be found, and if there are clusters in orientation that correlates far above average with one or more of the ancient poles, we have found serious proof of their true age.

And that would mean that the Nuragic culture stretched out over a time span of hundreds of thousands of years, and that this civilization survived not only the periods of stability but also the periods of crustal unrest. And indeed, their Nuraghes appear not only to point massively to the former poles but appear also to follow the path of the pole.

The data which was used from the paper[1] measures of course all orientations with Pole I as the one and only possible reference. These data has to be reprocessed to the Pole II to V to look for correlations.

Fig. 7: The largest spikes in the data correlate with Pole IV, with a probability of more than 99.99%. These Nuraghes are between 240,000 and 270,000 years old.

The True Age of Chichen Itza and Stonehenge Are Already Proven

As already mathematically proven with Chichen Itza as well as with Stonehenge, were these ancient cultures able to track the ancient cardinal directions as well as the solstices with surgical precision.

A number of the Nuraghes are oriented in between the pole positions. It appears the civilization tracked the shifting crust over the many millenniums. That explains in the simplest way why we find so many Nuraghes spread across the island of Sardinia.

So the first thing we did is to look for clues here. It’s not difficult to see there’s NO relation in the data[1] between the Equinox and the Summer Solstice, but the peaks in the data correspond extremely high with Pole III and Pole IV. It literally jumps through the roof.

Correlations between Orientation of Nuraghes and the Ancient Poles

Table 1: This table presents the conclusions of the data processing. The simple Nuraghes peaked during Pole IV, which is between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago. The “angle X” is the weighed average of the whole group which correlates with the specific pole.

The Probabilities That Peaks Correlate to Ancient Poles

When we look at the graph presented in fig. 5 we see a clear non-random distribution. The peak at 148° (n=15) is extraordinary high when we regard the amount of involved measurements (N=259). If we would be looking at a random distribution, a peak of this size would only occur once in every 76.5 million times. This is why it is clearly not a random distribution, that’s why it is done on purpose. It is this peak that correlates with Pole IV.

If we take away the largest peak, there’s still a very strong correlation with Pole III left. So the proof hangs on more than just one thread. The Nuragic civilization spanned over a period of hundreds of thousands of years.

Selection of Some Nuraghes

Table 2:  Short list of Nuraghes and their poles
POLE Nuraghe name (Town) Age (×1000 years)
Pole I  Sa Pria (Perfugas), Ruiu (Macomer), Murcu (Cardedu) 0 – 26
Pole II  Luche (Illorai), Sambinzu (Bonorva), Rampinu (Orosei), Serresi (Sindia), S Orighes (Orani) 130 – 155
Pole III Tuttusoni (Aglientu), Figone (Bulzi), Tribides (Perfugas), Pazza (Ploaghe), Ruggiu (Pozzomaggiore), Orosai (Birori), Ponte (Dualchi)  225 – 240
Pole IV Sant Alena (San Vito), Truxiu (Nuragus), Jana (Zerfaliu), Perda de Caddos (Bonarcado), Ludriscas (Orani), Nela (Sindia), Santa Luxia 1 (Orosei), Nunnale (Orune), Tintinnos (Bonorva)  240 – 270
Pole V Nurassolu (Sadali), Izzi (Abbasanta), Succhiaiu (Aidomaggiore), Caddaris (Dualchi), Tossilo (Macomer), Spadularzu (Bonorva)  330 – 345


One of my readers asked for help to look into the Nuraghes. I heard about Nuraghes before but had never included them in the data set, because the data set contains only square or rectangle buildings, or large arrays like the Donegal alignment or Carnac which comply with the theory. It appears that the Nuraghes are no exception in the always returning relation between ancient structures and the Poles I to V, wherever we are on Earth.

The Nuraghes are showing the exact same reorientation patterns as the Mayan buildings like for example Chichen Itza. That is one of the reasons why this island is littered with Nuraghes. Every time the crust displaced a bit, a new Nuraghe was built to comply with the new cardinal system. That habit appears to contain a gold mine of data. It also reinforces the theory, because every time when we apply the theory to Chichen Itza, Stonehenge, or in this case the Nuraghes it again appears to correlate up to a surprising high level.

The peak at an azimuth of 148° is closely related to Pole IV. The large spike in the data proves mathematically that the Nuragic civilization oriented their Nuraghes to the South during Pole III and Pole IV. It means that this civilization is at least 240,000 years old. It also means that this civilization survived the shift from Pole IV to Pole III, and continued their habit to built Nuraghes and to orient their openings to the South. We are talking here of a highly developed civilization with strong traditions, and probably a deep spiritual understanding of nature.

The studies which are done on the complex Nuraghes appear to reveal astonishing details. Every time, when the theory is applied on ancient structures, the theory appears to be correct and also to explain the (astronomical) use of the astounding ancient buildings.

I leave it up to my readers to conclude what that means for the mainstream ideas of disciplines like archaeology, geology, paleontology, climatology, and history in general. Maybe it is time to rewrite our indoctrinations radically.

Sardinia Became Connected to the Mainland Between Pole III and Pole II

Fig. 8: This animation shows how Sardinia became connected to Corsica and how Corsica became connected to North-West Italy. During the migration of the crust from Pole III to Pole II the vast ice sheets started to develop to such an extend that the sea level dropped more than 110 meters. The Nuragic civilization became vulnerable for invasions, that’s the most probable reason for it to vanish mysteriously.


© 2017 by Mario Buildreps



[1]: “On the orientations of Sardinian Nuraghes” by M. Zedda and J.A. Belmonte (2004).


Lost Civilizations: Pyramids, Atlantis, and the Shifting Crust (Part II)

This series of videos is a precursor of the book “Atlantis is Here”. The video starts with the simple question why Greenland is covered in ice. This simple question has never been sufficiently answered by mainstream science.

New, ground breaking research has found out that Earth Crust Shifts, Ice Ages, and ancient structures like pyramids and temples are closely related. This new theory proves mathematically 4 former geographic poles with certainties from 99.99% and higher.

The certainties of the position of the last two poles are incredibly high: 1 to many trillions that the found orientation clusters of ancient structures on Greenland are coincidentally formed.

The crust never shifted so wildly as Hapgood suggested in his theory. The earth had major shifts over the last 340,000 years. Hapgood also suggested that the crust shifted in the longitudinal direction. That also didn’t took place. The crust shifted in the latitudinal direction, which is a direct cause of the fact that earth is a rotating sphere. Every reaction to an external force takes place in the perpendicular direction of the rotational direction. The force in this case is oscillating gravity field when the Earth is in a high eccentric orbit around the Sun. That is the reason why the two graphs, eccentricity and ice ages, match perfectly to each other.

This video has been brought out as a precursor of the book, because I think it is important to know for the general public. It will still take at least a year for the book to come out.

Own Hosted Version:

Youtube Version:

Lost Civilizations: Greenland, the Geo Pole, and Ice Ages (PART I)

This is the first video in a series of videos. The series is a precursor of the book “Atlantis is Here”. The video starts with the simple question why Greenland is covered in ice. This simple question has never been sufficiently answered by mainstream science.

New, ground breaking research has found out that Earth Crust Shifts, Ice Ages, and ancient structures like pyramids and temples are intimately entangled. This new theory proves mathematically 4 former geographic poles with certainties of 99.99% and higher.

The crust never shifted so wildly as Hapgood suggested in his theory. The earth had major shifts over the last 340,000 years. Hapgood also suggested that the crust shifted in the longitudinal direction. That also didn’t took place.

The crust shifted in the latitudinal direction, which is a direct cause of the fact that earth is a rotating sphere, similar as a spinning top which reacts on an external force. This external force is a high eccentric orbit around the Sun, which causes a large tidal oscillation. That is the reason why the curves of eccentricity and ice ages fit one on one onto each other.


Own Hosted Version:


Youtube Version:


© 2017 by Mario Buildreps



A Visual Idea What Happens After a Crustal Shift

Why we Only Find Stone Structures Around the World

This short video explains elegantly what happens when our current civilization would vanish from the face of the Earth. Stone structures are virtually the only remains we would find.

Structures like the Chinese Wall and the pyramids of Giza, and the countless other structures which are not made from steel reinforced concrete, will remain standing for hundreds of thousands of years. And these structures suggest that Earth was once inhabited by an advanced ancient civilization. Dating these structures would appear to be virtually impossible. For example the White House and the Vatican which are both oriented to our current Geographic pole would possibly leave some traces, mainly the orientation of their foundations, that could tell something about this lost civilization.

Would we find much remains of the 7.5 billion people? Possibly not so much, since huge tidal waves literally washed the continents clean, megaquakes swallowed up complete buildings into the deep, and volcano eruptions burned many of the rest that was left. It was one of the many rejuvenation cycles of the Earth.

The new species would swear they arose from an ice age. The path of developing tools could possibly run similar as we think it went with our species – stone age, bronze age, iron age.

If our civilization vanished due to a crustal shift we would be able to trace back what could have happened by examining the orientation of foundations of the remaining buildings. That is to say if this civilization is both spiritually and intellectually advanced enough.

Just digging into the ground delivers very interesting artefacts and might reveal more information about some foundations, but determining the true age of these structures would be awesomely difficult, if not impossible, without introducing advanced mathematics. Examining the orientation of many buildings, at a mass scale all around the world of our lost civilization, would reveal the truth.

Relax and have a great watch!


Lost Civilizations and Earth Crust Shifts

Fig. 1: Life is fragile, and in the same time indestructible. Huge catastrophes swept away life on Earth many times. Gravity and motion are the main drivers of life on earth, but also the main cause of death and extinction.

The Theory of Earth Crust Displacements

After reading the title, you might ask “do we have earth crust displacements then?” The answer on this question will be given in this very comprehensive, and maybe from time to time tough article.

The theory of earth crust displacements has been dumped into the corners of pseudo science in the early 60s after Wegener’s theory of plate tectonics was confirmed by evidence found on the ocean floors.

Professor Charles Hapgood claimed that the earth’s crust, which is relatively thin and light (part of the lithosphere), could shift over the hot, molten magma layer (astenosphere) on which it is believed to be floating. It was later said by scientists that there is no force strong enough to make such radical movements of the crust possible, and that only the very slow tectonic plate movements forms the earth’s crust, and thus the climatic events.

There is indeed no force strong enough to make very swift radical movements possible like Hapgood suggest, but he was ultimately true that Earth crust displacements are possible.

Fig. 2: Solar heat at high latitudes is reduced in two ways: light travels a longer path through the atmosphere AND the incoming light is spread over a larger surface.

The Ruling Theories Result in Too Many Contradictions

At first hand seems the current ruling scientific view viable for most of the phenomena we witness on earth. The geological record provides irrefutable evidence that dramatic climate fluctuations have occurred throughout our planet’s history.


Charles Hapgood delivered a lifetime achievement with his book Earth’s Shifting Crust – A Key to Some Basic Problems of Earth Science. His book is interesting to read, written in simple language.

Geological evidence suggests that the climate had very mild periods, virtually from pole to pole. But how is that even possible when the sun is considered to be the only heat source? How can the sun heat the poles? This idea seems to be only possible when the earth would be heated from within, through convection.

Hapgood’s conclusions show enough reasons to do profound research on this issue, to find the truth.

Fig. 3: The eccentricity of the last ice age, more than a thousand miles off, is shouting for a rational explanation, while most scientists still believe that carbon dioxide causes global warming. | © 2016 by Buildreps

Radical Changes Require Radical Forces or Vice Versa

While reading Hapgood’s book, you become convinced that Earth crust displacements are the only credible explanation for many phenomena like:

  1. the sudden waxing and waning of glaciations,
  2. the eccentricity of recent ice caps in relation to the geo poles,
  3. that Greenland was about 450,000 years ago really green, and covered in rich flora,
  4. the sudden extinction of flora and fauna,
  5. the sudden emergence of new species.

Hapgood’s treatise is much more detailed and profound then just the few actualities shown here. His style of research was original, intelligent, and very controversial. You can also call it out-of-the-mainstream ideas.

Fig. 4: Ice depositions grow usually centric around the pole, unless a phenomena like the Warm Gulfstream makes it acentric like you can see on the North pole in March. | © 2016 by Buildreps

Why the Eccentric Ice Caps Requires an Explanation

When we look at the North pole in March, we see that the Gulf Stream warms the whole region denoted by N3, and partially N2 and N4. The Gulf Stream is very powerful.

What would happen when there wasn’t a Gulf Stream present?

The ice formation around the North pole would then become almost symmetric, and the Greenland Sea and Northern Atlantic would be completely frozen in Winter.

One could try to argue that during the last ice age there must have been a warm Gulf stream along the coasts of Alaska and Eastern Russia, pushing itself through the Bering Strait, making this ice formation around the pole acentric. But the seaway between Alaska and Russia is far to narrow for a Gulf Stream to pass through and become large enough to cause such a large asymmetry. This seaway was not even present during the last glaciation cycle due to the low sea level – there was a land bridge between North America and Russia.

It is crucial to understand that energy always flows from high to low, and not vice versa. The Warm Gulf stream is running in that region because it is a consequence of the second Law of Thermodynamics – restoring an energetic imbalance after a crustal dislocation. This process is still running today – the melting of Greenland.

The Warm Gulfstream will decrease in intensity after the situation at the North pole is returned to normal, and that is after the Greenland ice sheet is almost completely molten, which will still take some 4,000 years.

Fig. 5: The amount of incoming solar energy at the poles depends strongly on latitude AND season.

Why Science is Not Always Rational

One of the most serious dilemmas in Palaeontology is that Antarctica once had abundant subtropical flora and fauna, some 50 million years ago.

Science also tells us that Antarctica would be at its current location at that time. This leads us to the question: where was the solar light coming from to make this abundant, subtropical lifeforms possible? Mirrors in space maybe?

No, scientists came up with an even more ludicrous theory.

During six months there is hardly any solar light on Antarctica. The Milankovitch cycles are much too weak to explain anything regarding this issue (making the South pole lightly turn to the sun).

Scientists came up with the idea how trees and plants must have adapted to an almost complete lack of sun light. How does that work without photosynthesis?

Why don’t we see this adaptation happening today? Why do we still have taigas, tundras, and steppes and no tropical rain forests in Northern Siberia or Alaska? Or why don’t we see any trees growing on top of the Himalayas?

What we see happening here is that if one possibility is moved from the scene – crustal dislocations – they are replaced by the only left possibility – plants growing without solar light. These are irrational, unreliable, and adhoc theories. The tragic is that the general public believes these fantasies as to be true, which are broadcasted by the mainstream media, inflated with beautiful animations, like fairytales for adults.

There is no other way to explain these facts than with crustal dislocations.


Fig. 6: The Pangaea Theory.

More About the Pangaea Theory

The Pangaea theory was devised to explain how species migrated between the different continents.

Alfred Wegener, who was the (official) founder of the idea, saw that continents once could have fitted into eachother, like you can see on the photo on the right. It is believed to be 250 million years ago.

It is thought to be a cyclical event. Meaning, there could have been more “Pangaeas” before this one.

It is a simple, visually based theory that comes at hand, for the palaeontologists, to explain many things, like in this case the migration of species. Geologists later confirmed the theory after finding fault lines on ocean floors, driven apart by forces from within earth.

Why the Pangaea Theory is Incomplete

The theory tells us that Pangaea started to break apart, but not why and how it broke apart. A theory that lacks to explain why or how it happened is incomplete.

The theory can also be used at will. For example, it explains how different species could spread over the continents. But it can also explain why we find similar dolmens or pyramids on every continent, or name any other similar cultural phenomenon. Why is that? Because humans could spread all over the world and built their stone structures when Pangaea was still intact?

But because Pangaea was 250 million years ago, it is then dismissed as impossible. Which is using a theory according to whether it suits the inventors. This shows an inherent falsity at the core of science, which might be caused by the compartmentalization of science. Spreading of species is explained, while spreading of cultural similarities is instantaneously dismissed.

When the spreading of dolmens and pyramids all over the world is regarded as coincidence, why can’t we then regard spreading of species around the world as coincidence?

Continental drift is a fact, but Pangaea is an idea that cannot be verified by evidence or by any mathematical model. It is an immature visually based idea.

The Framework for Any Glaciation Theory

Hapgood mentions in his book, William Lee Stokes, a well known geologist and palaeontologist, who provided a framework that every theory has to meet when it wants to explain glaciations. A theory that neglects one or more items on this list can be regarded as unviable or incomplete.

  1. An initiating event or condition.
  2. A mechanism for cyclic repetitions or oscillations within the general period of glaciation.
  3. A terminating condition or event.
  4. It should not rely upon unprovable, unobservable, or unpredictable conditions when well-known or more simple ones will suffice.
  5. It must solve the problem of increased precipitation with colder climate.
  6. The facts call for a mechanism that either increases the precipitation or lowers the temperature very gradually over a period of thousands of years.

Hapgood believed that the theory of ice deposition at the poles could make the crust shift. Maybe it can play part in an increasing imbalance of the crust, but it cannot be the main cause of crustal dislocations. Why not?

Fig. 7: Hammer throwing is a good example where eccentric forces are used to move an object from A to B.

Why Ice Deposition at the Poles Cannot Cause Large Crustal Dislocations

Asymmetrical ice depositions around the poles cause theoretically very large tangential pointed forces.

Since earth is a sphere, these eccentric forces can theoretically, when they occur around the poles, and are large enough, shift the crust (lithosphere) over the syrupy magma layer (asthenosphere).

Hapgood believed that the last ice ages at the Northern hemisphere caused the earth crust to shift. This idea was also formed after looking at the growing eccentricity on Antarctica.

But Hapgood’s theory is deeply conflicting in itself, and contains a circular reasoning:

A) If we look at the Northern ice sheet during the last ice age, with the idea that the geo pole was where it currently is, we see a very large eccentricity (see fig. 3). This eccentricity could be, according to Hapgood, responsible for a crustal shift. Because ice forms centric around the poles, how can it be responsible for imbalances?

B) How could this pole move from Greenland to its current location? Because we cannot seem to solve this large eccentricity other then positing the thesis that the pole was on Greenland a priori, we then automatically balance the ice sheet around the pole, making any eccentric forces impossible.

C) How could it then cause a crustal shift? Because the eccentric forces were neutralizing each other when the pole was on Greenland.

D) How can it be that Antarctica was moving to the geo pole? It was then making a counter movement, and thus proving that the contrary was happening.

You see here that the reasoning conflicts, hence dismissing the possibility that the ice sheets itself cause crustal displacements.

Milankovitch Cycles – A More Consistent Clue

Without any doubt was Hapgood right about radical, violent crustal dislocations. But his theory was incomplete, and moreover, it simply ignored many contemporary, clearly proven theories.

Milankovitch, for example, discovered already in the 1920s that the orbital cycles – eccentricity, obliquity, and precession – seemed to be in accordance with glacial cycles.

This lead to a typical ‘short circuit’ theory that the Milankovitch cycles in itself were responsible for the ice ages, although science still very poorly understands why Milankovitch’s cycles influence the climate on earth.

A Large ‘e’ Stands For Large Annual Gravitational Swings

Fig. 8: The larger the eccentricity becomes, the larger the annual gravitational changes become. These fluctuations cause very large tidal oscillation, and causes crustal deformations which we call “ice ages”. | © 2016 by Buildreps

Why Eccentricity is the Main Key to Understand Glaciations

The only factor in the Milankovitch cycles that seems to influence the amount of received solar energy is the changing eccentricity of earth’s orbit.

A sphere, which the earth is, doesn’t receive less energy when it is tilted or when it wobbles in any way. It still receives the same amount of solar energy. Eccentricity seems then to be the only key left to explain glaciations.

And even this phenomenon, when regarded over a period of one year doesn’t show changing incoming solar energy. Why not? Because the average distance to the sun doesn’t change over one year. The Aphelion a(1+e) and the Perihelion a(1-e) always result in 2 × a, meaning that the net result of collected solar energy over one years stays the same. And since glaciations cover periods of tens of thousands of years, there’s no way to explain how the amount of incoming solar energy ever can change.

We can easily see there’s a huge dilemma here, because the curve fittings of the Milankovitch cycles and glaciation cycles show a perfect match.

Temperature Proxies (δ18O) and Eccentricity

Fig. 9: D18O records found on the ocean floors are a very good proxies for temperature indicators of the past. The similarities between D18O and eccentric orbit is crystal clear. C=cold, W =warm. | © 2016 by Buildreps

What is the Relation Between δ18O and Eccentricity?

The δ18O samples (Foraminifera shells) taken from the ocean floor serve as very good temperature indicators. It is not difficult to overlook the similarity of patterns between the two curves. The curves have to be well superimposed to make the similarities clear.

We see that the highs of the red curve correspond to the lows of the black curve. δ18O is somewhat tricky. Low values stand for high temperatures and vice versa. The explanation behind this mechanism can be explained as: If the eccentricity of earth’s orbit around the sun runs above a certain value, the temperature proxies start to drop radically (temperature goes up).

But why? Since the annual solar energy doesn’t change?

What Paleontologists measured was not the real temperature, but the proxy of that temperature. When the proxies (the shells) were moved from one region (latitude) to another, this is not visible, and could easily be misinterpreted as a temperature change. While in fact the sample were displaced to another climatic zone.

The crust was heavily deformed as a response to the increasing tidal forces which was the effect of a large eccentric orbit. The proxies reacted on that crustal shift. A change in latitude means a change in temperature.

Mind you that this possibility has been ignored by both geologists and paleontologists, which is a tragic error.

Another Proxy – δD and Eccentricity

Fig. 10: The relations between eccentricity in earth’s orbit and glaciations are clear. Eccentric relates to glaciation cycles. Glaciation cycles are caused by tidal oscillation, deforming the Earth’s crust.| © 2016 by Buildreps

Another Proxy

Another proxy from the ice cores of Dome-C on Antarctica shows the same kind of pattern, although this proxy works different, it also relates to temperature change.

We see that the highs of the red curve correspond to the highs of the blue curve.

It is clear, and not very difficult to verify, that the eccentricity of earth’s orbit triggers an event that is interpreted by scientist as a glaciation, while it was a crustal shift.

It is not unthinkable though that a large eccentric orbit ‘massages’ earth’s interior more strongly, so that the earth starts to warm up from the inside. Convection from the inside might warm the crust a little. It can also make the syrupy astenosphere more fluid, which might cause the crust to ‘moonwalk’ over the magma, under influence of a large tidal oscillation. One thing is sure – science really has to get to work, and stop this silly whining over carbon induced warming.

The smaller temperature changes in between the large peaks can be easily explained by many less impactive events like varying solar activity, Heinrich events, changes in ocean circulation, etcetera.

Additional Effects – Annual Extreme Weathering

Fig. 11: Because the earth axis is tilted a large eccentricity has profound effects on temperature changes. | © 2016 by Buildreps

Why These Extremes Cause Crustal Shifts

When the eccentricity of earth’s orbit increases, it doesn’t influence the annual amount of received solar energy, but it does influence gravitation between the earth and the sun significantly.

  1. The larger the eccentricity becomes, the larger the temperature differences over one year. To understand the effects, look at deserts – hot at daylight, cold at night, resulting in erosive, rock splitting conditions.
  2. Depending of the tilt and precession during an extreme eccentricity, some parts of the globe are subjected to more extremes than other parts. Resulting in local expansion (heating) and local contraction (cooling).
  3. The closer earth gets to the sun, the harder the sun is pulling. This causes extreme tidal oscillations.

This latter effect is the main driver behind crustal deformations. Once the tidal forces are large enough, the lithosphere is able to break loose from its syrupy under layer, and starts to dislocate.

This phenomenon might also trigger dislocations of the outer (liquid metal) core, a phenomenon that we currently witness as a wandering magnetic pole.

How Earth’s Rotation Currently Varies

Fig. 12: The annual variation in rotation speed is the result of the current eccentricity of earth’s orbit around the sun. It is 2 milliseconds per year.

Current Fluctuations of Earth’s Rotation

The graph above shows how annually the earth’s rotation varies just a little bit. This variation is induced by the changing distance to the sun, which is also determined by the collective momentum of our entire solar system. When the earth gets somewhat closer to the sun, the rotation slows down with about 2 milliseconds. When it moves further away, the rotation speed goes up again.

The overall loss in speed, visible in the graph by the overall downward trend, is energy which is transferred to the moon. The result is that the moon slowly moves away from the earth, while increasing its rotational speed.

This coherent system is mathematically amazing complex, and still very poorly understood by science.

The variation in annual rotation speed seems very tiny, but it represents an amazing amount of energy: 9.93·1021 Joule [1]. The total global energy consumption in 2015 is estimated to be about 6.5·1020 Joule. This unnoticeable small fraction in Earth’s rotational variations is about 15 times more powerful than the total global energy consumption.

Sometimes you have to see things in their true perspectives.

[1]: Erot = ½·I·(ω12– ω22); I = 8.04×1037kg·m2; ω1 = 7.2934778604×10-5 rad/s; ω2 = 7.2934780297×10-5 rad/s

Earth’s Inner is a Composition of Layers

Fig. 13: Earth’s solid inner layers are hydraulic connected by two liquid layers. The solid parts can move separately from each other when the tidal forces become large enough. | © 2016 by Buildreps
Fig. 14: The Earth’s layered structure: 1=inner core (solid); 2=outer core (liquid); 3=lower mantle (solid); 4=upper mantle (syrupy); 5=lithosphere (solid); 6=crust (solid, part of the lithosphere)

Rotation Speed of the Earth Varies

Once you understand that the rotation speed of the earth partially depends on the distance to the sun, it is not difficult to see that this influences the force on the different shells of earth’s inner.

Many people regard the earth as one solid object, while it consists of three solid shells that are rotational connected to eachother by two liquid intermediate layers.

All three solid components will react differently to increasing tidal oscillation.


Because their densities are very different. The inner core is very heavy, while the crust is very light. This results in different reactions to an eccentric orbit.

Eccentricity and glaciations are clearly one and the same.

The Ultimate Cause of Crustal Shifts

When the tidal oscillations exceeds a certain threshold, one or more of the solid layers can lose its connections with one of the liquid layers. This happens when one of the liquid layers is not able to transfer the momentum between one of the solid layers.

And this oscillation forcecauses the earth’s crust to shift and deform.

As with a spinning top, when a force is exercised in one direction, it will react perpendicular to that force. This is why we see that the crust has shifted mainly in latitudinal direction, and not in longitudinal direction.

The most inner core is solid and very heavy, it won’t react as fiercely to tidal oscillations as the very light and brittle outer shell, the crust. The crust is connected to a tough syrupy asthaenosphere that won’t loose its grip that easy.



© 2016-2018 by Buildreps

First published: March 2, 2016