Lost Civilizations – The Mystery of Nuraghes on Sardinia

Nuraghes belong to one of the most mysterious ancient buildings in the world. An unknown civilization, called the Nuragic civilization, built over 7,000 stone structures on Sardinia, an island of the size of Sicily. The Nuragic civilization appears to be way older than previously believed, way beyond our imagination. 

Fig. 1: The Nuraghe Santa Sabina is an example of a simple Nuraghe. There are thousands of these on Sardinia that are approximately similar to this one. Most of them are in a worse condition.

What is a Nuraghe?

A Nuraghe is a tower-shaped, prehistoric stone structure only to be found in Sardinia. It is said they date from the second millennium B.C. to the Roman conquest.

Most people believe that Nuraghes are astronomical aligned structures. But to say which kind of astronomical purpose they exactly served is completely unknown. Researches[1] to the orientation of the openings show they peak at an azimuth of 148°. There’s no match to make with one of the cardinals, the Equinox, nor with one of the Solstices. The current Summer and Winter solstices in Sardinia occur respectively around 58.5° and 121.5.

Nuraghes show also peaks in declination between 40° and 44° which has led to speculations they might have been oriented to Alpha Centauri. Why an alleged primitive culture would point their towers to one of the many stars light years away remains of course unanswered.

Most researchers split Nuraghes into two parts: simple Nuraghes and complex Nuraghes. This article will deal only with the simple Nuraghes.

Fig. 2: Typical floor plan of a simple Nuraghe.

What Was the Function of a Nuraghe?

Wikipedia about Nuraghes: “There is no consensus on the function of the nuraghes: they could have been rulers’ residences, military strongholds, meeting halls, religious temples, ordinary dwellings or a combination of the former. Some of the nuraghes are, however, located in strategic places – such as hills– from which important passages could be easily controlled. They might have been something between a “status symbol” and a “passive defence” building, meant to be a deterrent for possible enemies.

This explanation does not deviate from the typical average explanations as to how ancient cultures lived, built, and practiced their religious and scientific lives. This approach is of course unable to solve questions like:

  • why so many Nuraghes?
  • why are they all so similar but weirdly oriented?
  • what was their purpose?

By applying the new mathematical theory, The Holistic Orientation Based Dating Method, is the function of the Nuraghes explained as well as the periods they were built. Our conventional history appears to be built on a swamp of misinterpretations, fixed ideas, lies, and most of all the common practice of unscience by the academia.

How the Shifting Crust Relates to Ancient Structures and Ice Ages

Fig. 3: More than 500 ancient structures, like pyramids and temples are used to prove how and when the Earth’s crust shifted on the rhythm of the Milankovitch cycles, or better, Earth’s eccentric orbit around the Sun. While Nuraghes are no part of the dataset they also appear to follow the 47.1 W reference line with a surgical precision. The odds for the Nuraghes to be also coincidentally part of that same track is 1 to 893,000 | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Nuraghes Are No Exception

It is generally believed there’s no relation between the Nuraghes and the countless other ancient structures around the world. But that appears to be one of the biggest mistakes science has made over the last centuries. Nuraghes appear to belong to the same global civilization which spanned the entire planet, one of the countless Lost Civilizations.

The whole idea, that ancient cultures are stretching out over hundreds of thousands of years, is awesomely hard to grasp for most people. And that has a reason. We are all relentlessly conditioned at school with the same ideas of ancient history, which is ultimately completely false.

Fig. 4: Many of the simple Nuraghes are oriented between 140 and 160 degrees.

Most archaeologists won’t even ponder a split second on the idea that ancient structures might be hundreds of thousands of years old. Even when remnants of Homo sapiens are found in Marocco that appear to be over 300,000 years old – the penny still doesn’t drop. That’s because the ruling paradigm is much too tough to break through. Only mathematics has the power to smash tough paradigms to smithereens. It’s then up to yourself to transform your believe system to a higher level.

Ask yourself questions like: why would a 300,000 year old Homo sapiens be less smart than we are today? Because they didn’t went to the same schools as we did? There are insufficient reasons to assume they would be either smarter or dumber than we are. Because if they would be one of both they would be, by definition, another species.

The Results of the Measurements

Fig. 5 : The orientation of the openings of simple Nuraghes peaks at 148°. The current solstices of Sardinia are far away from the spikes in the data. | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Why the Crust Moved

Geologists say there is no evidence for crustal displacements. But they haven’t looked well enough to their own data. Paleomagnetic records appear to contain tons of data that are pointing not only to magnetic movements but also to movements of the crust. And because one measurement thus contains two variables it cannot be solved without introducing a second completely different measurement.

During the crustal movements the paleomagnetic data show an increased hysteresis. In other words, the paleomagnetic records show a larger spread during periods of crustal unrest, which is of course logical during periods of crustal displacement. Geologists have never found a credible explanation for the varying hysteresis, other than just unexplained “noise” without further examination. It never even dawned on them there is second variable in the game: crustal movements caused by very heavy earthquakes which on their turn are caused by a high eccentric orbit of Earth around the Sun.

Because the Earth, Earth’s inner and also the outer crust are rotating bodies, they will react perpendicularly to the direction of rotation when a force is acted upon them. Exactly like a spinning top does. Because the crust has the highest velocity and is at the same time the lightest part of the Earth, it will react the most fiercely of all the components. That’s why the crust crawled in the latitudinal (vertical) direction.

How the Latitude of Sardinia Changed Over Time

Fig. 6: This animation shows how the latitudes of Sardinia have changed during the “glaciation cycles”. Glaciation cycles were in fact crustal displacements. The Nuragic civilization appeared to have a firm tradition to orient the openings of the stone structures to the South and continued to do this consistently over a period of about 200,000 years, even during the periods of crustal unrest. | © 2017 by Buildreps.

Finding the First Clues on Nuraghes

The theory or method says there were four former geographic poles, called Pole II to Pole V (fig. 3). Our current geographic pole is Pole I. This is not just a hint or an idea, no, it is mathematically proven. The geographic pole is the spin axis of the Earth. Many people appear to mix this with the magnetic pole.

If the Nuraghes were built during one of these periods, the orientation of the Nuraghes could well relate to one or more of these poles. Our first clues are here to be found, and if there are clusters in orientation that correlates far above average with one or more of the ancient poles, we have found serious proof of their true age.

And that would mean that the Nuragic culture stretched out over a time span of hundreds of thousands of years, and that this civilization survived not only the periods of stability but also the periods of crustal unrest. And indeed, their Nuraghes appear not only to point massively to the former poles but appear also to follow the path of the pole.

The data which was used from the paper[1] measures of course all orientations with Pole I as the one and only possible reference. These data has to be reprocessed to the Pole II to V to look for correlations.

Fig. 7: The largest spikes in the data correlate with Pole IV, with a probability of more than 99.99%. These Nuraghes are between 240,000 and 270,000 years old.

The True Age of Chichen Itza and Stonehenge Are Already Proven

As already mathematically proven with Chichen Itza as well as with Stonehenge, were these ancient cultures able to track the ancient cardinal directions as well as the solstices with surgical precision.

A number of the Nuraghes are oriented in between the pole positions. It appears the civilization tracked the shifting crust over the many millenniums. That explains in the simplest way why we find so many Nuraghes spread across the island of Sardinia.

So the first thing we did is to look for clues here. It’s not difficult to see there’s NO relation in the data[1] between the Equinox and the Summer Solstice, but the peaks in the data correspond extremely high with Pole III and Pole IV. It literally jumps though the roof.

Correlations between Orientation of Nuraghes and the Ancient Poles

Table 1: This table presents the conclusions of the data processing. The simple Nuraghes peaked during Pole IV, which is between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago. The “angle X” is the weighed average of the whole group which correlates with the specific pole.

The Probabilities That Peaks Correlate to Ancient Poles

When we look at the graph presented in fig. 5 we see a clear non-random distribution. The peak at 148° (n=15) is extraordinary high when we regard the amount of involved measurements (N=259). If we would be looking at a random distribution, a peak of this size would only occur once in every 76.5 million times. This is why it is clearly not a random distribution, that’s why it is done on purpose. It is this peak that correlates with Pole IV.

If we take away the largest peak, there’s still a very strong correlation with Pole III left. So the proof hangs on more than just one thread. The Nuragic civilization spanned over a period of hundreds of thousands of years.

Selection of Some Nuraghes

Table 2:  Short list of Nuraghes and their poles
POLE Nuraghe name (Town) Age (×1000 years)
Pole I  Sa Pria (Perfugas), Ruiu (Macomer), Murcu (Cardedu) 0 – 26 ky
Pole II  Luche (Illorai), Sambinzu (Bonorva), Rampinu (Orosei), Serresi (Sindia), S Orighes (Orani) 130 – 180 ky
Pole III Tuttusoni (Aglientu), Figone (Bulzi), Tribides (Perfugas), Pazza (Ploaghe), Ruggiu (Pozzomaggiore), Orosai (Birori), Ponte (Dualchi)  220 – 230 ky
Pole IV Sant Alena (San Vito), Truxiu (Nuragus), Jana (Zerfaliu), Perda de Caddos (Bonarcado), Ludriscas (Orani), Nela (Sindia), Santa Luxia 1 (Orosei), Nunnale (Orune), Tintinnos (Bonorva)  240 – 270 ky
Pole V Nurassolu (Sadali), Izzi (Abbasanta), Succhiaiu (Aidomaggiore), Caddaris (Dualchi), Tossilo (Macomer), Spadularzu (Bonorva)  335 – 360 ky

Conclusion

One of my readers asked for help to look into the Nuraghes. I heard about Nuraghes before but had never included them in the data set, because the data set contains only square or rectangle buildings, or large arrays like the Donegal alignment or Carnac which comply with the theory. It appears that the Nuraghes are no exception in the always returning relation between ancient structures and the Poles I to V, wherever we are on Earth.

The Nuraghes are showing the exact same reorientation patterns as the Mayan buildings like for example Chichen Itza. That is one of the reasons why this island is littered with Nuraghes. Every time the crust displaced a bit, a new Nuraghe was built to comply with the new cardinal system. That habit appears to contain a gold mine of data. It also reinforces the theory, because every time when we apply the theory to Chichen Itza, Stonehenge, or in this case the Nuraghes it again appears to correlate up to a surprising high level.

The peak at an azimuth of 148° is closely related to Pole IV. The large spike in the data proves mathematically that the Nuragic civilization oriented their Nuraghes to the South during Pole III and Pole IV. It means that this civilization is at least 250,000 years old. It also means that this civilization survived the shift from Pole IV to Pole III, and continued their habit to built Nuraghes and to orient their openings to the South. We are talking here of a highly developed civilization with strong traditions, and probably a deep spiritual understanding of nature.

The studies which are done on the complex Nuraghes appear to reveal astonishing details. Every time, when the theory is applied on ancient structures, the theory appears to be correct and also to explain the (astronomical) use of the astounding ancient buildings.

I leave it up to my readers to conclude what that means for the mainstream ideas of disciplines like archaeology, geology, paleontology, climatology, and history in general. Maybe it is time to rewrite our indoctrinations radically.

Sardinia Became Connected to the Mainland Between Pole III and Pole II

Fig. 8: This animation shows how Sardinia became connected to Corsica and how Corsica became connected to North-West Italy. During the migration of the crust from Pole III to Pole II the vast ice sheets started to develop to such an extend that the sea level dropped more than 100 meters. The Nuragic civilization became vulnerable for invasions, that’s the most probable reason for it to vanish mysteriously.

 

© 2017 by Mario Buildreps

 

 

[1]: “On the orientations of Sardinian Nuraghes” by M. Zedda and J.A. Belmonte (2004).

 

The Purpose of Stonehenge – Changing Perspectives

What Was the Purpose of Stonehenge?

In this second article we will explore the use of Stonehenge as a calender from another perspective. The purpose of Stonehenge has always been a mystery. The strange orientation of the monument in regard to the cardinals makes no sense, because the monument contains so many redundant stones. The scale of this megalithic structure leaves not a single doubt of its importance. But for what?

Fig 1: Was the purpose of Stonehenge to measure the Summer solstice? What are the other four tall stones doing on both sides? They seem to be of no use. But is that true?

Was Stonehenge a calender? Or a temple? But how did it work? Is the contemporary alignment of the symmetry axis towards the Summer solstice a play of mother Nature?

In this previous article some aspects of Stonehenge’s alleged solstice orientation are explained. It’s also argued in this previous article that the monument was oriented to another geographical pole, pole IV. This pole is between 240,000 and 270,000 years old.

The symmetry axis of Stonehenge was exactly perpendicular to the position of pole IV. The chances for this to happen accidentally is 20%. So, there’s obviously a possibility that this claim is entirely wrong.

But what happens when we actually continue to built on this outrageous claim? Will it make the monument work as a calender?

Fig 2: The crust has shifted multiple times, which is profoundly related to the ice ages. What if Stonehenge was oriented to pole IV? It would be between 240,000 and 270,000 years old. But if the monument starts to work, wouldn’t that mean the outrageous claim is actually correct?

Step 4 – Was Stonehenge a Very Ancient Calender?

If it is true that Stonehenge was really built at the time that the geographic North pole was at the location marked as pole IV, it would mean that it was situated at another latitude: 63.3°N instead of 51.2°N today.

That would change three major things:

  • the symmetry axis (explained in previous article) of Stonehenge was oriented towards another cardinal system and therefore to a very ancient true East-West cardinal. Stonehenge’s horseshoe would be oriented like a sun catcher to the Equinox, and so ultimately symmetrical to both Summer and Winter solstices.
  • the solstice angles were completely different because the latitude was different,
  • the tilt angle of the Earth varied between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago significantly.
Fig 3: Is it true that Stonehenge was built between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago? Can we verify this?

Pole IV, noted with the red dot (fig. 3), was stable at the position 64.0°N, 47.1°W between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago.

I know this article might be awfully difficult for many of my readers, but we have to go through this if you want to understand the full truth behind our ancient history. And that is a very difficult quest, which is ultimately a mathematical quest.

On the question, whether Stonehenge was an ancient calender, is the answer: Yes. It was a very sophisticated calender. But we have to overcome some serious problems first.

If Stonehenge would be oriented towards Pole IV its symmetry axis would be ultimately oriented towards an ancient Equinox.

Step 5 – Putting Everything Into Another Perspective

Fig 4: If Stonehenge would be oriented towards Pole IV its symmetry axis would be ultimately oriented towards an ancient Equinox.

Like already argued in the previous article, the odds for Stonehenge to correlate purposely with one of the former geographical poles is 80%. That’s not spectacularly high, but it’s a good enough basis to investigate.

But, of course, the almost matching orientation of Stonehenge towards the current Summer solstice is spectacularly higher, about 99.3%.

That’s why the basis for the idea that Stonehenge once was oriented, firstly to another cardinal system, and secondly would be amazingly older than believed might be received with disbelieve. That’s perfectly understandable. But that doesn’t change the fact that up to this day no one has been able to explain how the monument worked.

What if I say that this almost matching orientation towards the Summer solstice is a play of mother Nature?

Why is that? Because the monument obviously doesn’t work. Be honest, like already said, have you ever seen one idea about Stonehenge that really made sense? Why so much effort for so many obsolete stones, done in a time when manpower was one of the most valuable assets. Wouldn’t that contradict all logic?

Below (fig. 5) you find the formula to calculate the solstice angles for any location on Earth during any tilt angle of the spin axis. You will see how important it is to get a grasp of this kind of mathematics, which is mainly the terrain of experts.

Fig 5: The solstice angle depends on the latitude and the tilt of the spin axis of the Earth.

Step 6 – Setting the Initial Data

Since we can only say, at this stage, that Stonehenge corresponds to pole IV, we can find the corresponding values for that, which you find in the table below. Because pole IV was stable between 240,000 and 270,000 years ago the tilt of the Earth varied quite a bit and so the resulting solstice angles.

Topic Value
Location pole IV 64.0N, 47.1W
Distance Stonehenge to Pole IV 2,974 km
Latitude Stonehenge (pole IV) 63.3N
Tilt Earth (220-270ky ago) 22.6°-24.4°

How the Tilt Angle Varied

Fig 6: This graph shows between which angles Earth’s tilt varied during the period pole IV was at its stable position.

Step 7 – Calculating the Limits of the Solstices

By using the solstice formula we can calculate the values of the solstices for both extreme tilt angles.

Topic Value
Solstice angle tilt 22.6° 58.8°
Solstice angle tilt 24.4° 66.8°

Step 8 – Examining Stonehenge’s Arrangement Pole IV

Fig. 7: Both extremes do NOT fit on Stonehenge’s arrangement for Pole IV. We can delete them from our list and narrow the search for intermediate values. There appears to be only one angle which fits perfectly.

The Only Angle That Fits

Fig. 8: The only angle that fits onto Stonehenge’s arrangement is a solstice of 60.0°. Only at this solstice angles shone the sun rays perfectly through the two opposing slits. The way the stones are arranged make the slit so narrow that they could measure the solstice at the day accurately.

Step 9 – Finding the Most Probable Age for Stonehenge

Fig. 9: The most probable moment in time for Stonehenge to be built is 265,000 years ago. This age may differ slightly from previous published articles. The margin of error (±1,200 years) in previous articles were slightly too narrow. This age is currently the best age we can find.

As you can see in the graph above there are two moments during a stable pole IV (240ky-270ky ago). One is at -240 and the other at -265. It is highly unlikely that Stonehenge would be built at the end of a 30,000 years during period. It is therefore more likely that it was built 265,000 years ago.

The crust, after being on a rough ride for 65,000 years, stabilized at the position of Pole IV, 270,000 years ago. It took still 5,000 years before the monument was built during this period of blossom.

 

Fig 10: The margins for the Sun to shine through both slits A-A’ and B-B’ are amazingly small, just 0.05 degrees. The odds for this key to be coincidental is very small. We can be sure we’ve found the ultimate key of Stonehenge. The monument is a whopping 265,000 years old, mathematically confirmed.

Step 10 – The Probabilities of the Claim

As explained in the previous article, there is 20% chance for Stonehenge’s symmetry axis to correlate accidentally with one of the poles I to V, hence there’s 80% chance it was done on purpose. But there is only one pole where Stonehenge clearly correlates with, which is pole IV. Because of this reason we’ve researched the whole constellation based upon pole IV. What we found was beyond anything we expected.

It is therefore legitimate to say that if, the reorientation of the symmetry axis to another very ancient pole, would lead to a more credible explanation as to how the monument worked, the whole outrageous idea that Stonehenge would be oriented to Pole IV, and therefore very old, suddenly doesn’t sound so crazy anymore. But how large are the odds that the claim might be true?

Fig. 11: This animation shows how narrow the slit is when the Sun is on a solstice angle of 60°. It is the ONLY viewpoint where the monument works accurately enough to measure the solstice at ONE day accurately.

If we look at the horseshoe shaped inner arrangement we can fairly easy see there’s only one way to make this part of the monument to work for the:

  • Summer solstice,
  • Winter solstice and
  • Equinox,

The odds for this accidentally to happen are very small. The margins for the Sun to shine through the slits A-A’ and B-B’ are incredibly narrow, only 0.05°[1]. This 0.05° is the necessary margin to measure a solstice up to one day.

Of all possibilities is this amazingly narrow fit exclusively related to Pole IV. The chances that this is mere coincidence are very small: 1 to 6.7 million or 0.0000149%. The probability it was done on purpose: 99.999985%[2].

But since this probability logically cannot exceed the probability of pole IV it has been reduced to that of pole IV: 1 to 69,219.

We can therefore confirm that Stonehenge is actually 265,000 years old with a probability of 99.99856%, which outmatches any other estimations of the monument. This is amazingly old. In a next article we will explain what else the builders of Stonehenge could measure with their amazing construction.

It’s also crucial to grasp that the monument doesn’t work anymore today, although it’s still there.

New Answers Also Generate New Questions

Monuments like this appear to last much longer than we believe. This age raises also many questions like, why is it not buried with thick layers of soil? That might have to do with the continuous stream of visitors who went to the monument over the many millenniums. Besides, finding new answers also generate new questions.

In mathematics has the angle of 60° (and 30°) special properties. For example the cosine of 60° equals ½, and the sinus of 60° equals ½√3. This solstice angle of 60° occurred only once in history at this specific location. What was their message? Did they leave us such a monument to back engineer our true history? Did they know our history would be obscured so badly?

When the geographic pole was at position IV, it was at the South tip of Greenland, which led to the first formations of the Greenland ice sheet. It must have been cold at the time Stonehenge was built there, comparable with the middle of Scandinavia – mild Summers, cold Winters.

In the next article we will show how Stonehenge was used to study other sky phenomenons like Moon cycles.

 

© 2017 by Mario Buildreps

[1]: There might be doubt about the angle of 0.05°, and that is fully understandable, because it is indeed amazingly narrow. When we look from the middle of A’ towards A of from B’ towards B or vice versa (sunset) we can distinguish subtleties within a range of 0.05°. 

[2]: The probability calculations are based on: (1) matching symmetry with Pole IV; (2) matching arrangement of 5 trilithons + 1 heelstone with solstice angles and the equinox; (3) the matching distance from Stonehenge to the center of Pole IV within a range of 38.8 degrees; (4) the narrow slit of the 4 solstice trilithons to match at one day accurately within the configuration (1) to (3); (5) the only configuration to make the horseshoe to work for both solstices and the equinox. The odds that something is done on purpose and therefore true are: 100% – product of coincidences.